Structure and Functions of The Human Brain

31 May


The brain is one of the largest organ and most complex organ in the human body. Being so important and yet fragile the brain is protected by a hard bony skull. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses.The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges.
The main parts of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata.

Cerebrum is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain. The outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum is covered by a thin layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex. The cerebrum is divided into right and left hemispheres that are connected by the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere is in turn divided into four lobes.

• The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment and motor function.
• The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.
• The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.
• The occipital lobes contain the brain’s visual processing system.

The cerebrum is involved in several functions of the body including:
Determining Intelligence
Determining Personality
Producing and Understanding Language
Interpretation of Sensory Impulses
Motor Function
Planning and Organization
Touch Sensation


Cerebellum is sometimes referred to as the “little brain,” the cerebellum lies on top of the pons, behind the brain stem. The cerebellum is comprised of small lobes and receives information from the balance system of the inner ear, sensory nerves, and the auditory and visual systems. It is involved in the coordination of motor movements as well as basic facets of memory and learning.


The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions ( involuntary actions) such as breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing and sneezing. Involuntary actions are actions that cannot be controlled by our conscius mind. Motor and sensory neurons from the midbrain and forebrain travel through the medulla. As a part of the brainstem, the medulla oblongata helps in the transferring of messages between the brain and the spinal cord.


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