Sunspots appear as dark patches. They appear dark because they are cooler than other parts of the surface. Sunspots do not last more than a few weeks however every 11 years, the Sun is very active with many sunspots.The sunspots are magnetically active spots which are caused by magnetic disturbances deep inside the Sun. These disturbances can cause changes in the Earth’s climate, for example, extreme drought.
Prominences or ‘giant flames’ are also seen in the photosphere and can extend thousands of kilometres from the surface. Surface gases like Helium and Hydrogen escape to outer space also carry a stream of energetic , electrically charged particles which also cause wind known as solar wind. Solar wind can affect satellite, radio, television, telegraph and telephone communication. The particles also affect the Earth climate and also cause aurora which ia a phenomenon in which the sky in the polar regions appears colourful.