Menstrual Cycle in Women
In women, reproductive phase begins with the onset of menses at about the age of 13 years. It ends with its cessation (menopause) at about the age of 45 – 49 years. During this reproductive period, the ovaries and the female reproductive tract undergo a series of cyclic changes which are primarily meant to prepare them for fertilisation and pregnancy and collectively form the menstrual cycle.Menstural cycle, continues for an average of 28 days, after which some blood along with the endometrium are discharged from the uterus as menstural bleeding. This process is called mensturation.
The menstrual cycle is the correct term for the cycle (usually monthly) in which a woman’s body releases an egg, prepares itself for fertilisation of the egg by sperm and creates an environment in the womb in which the fertilised egg could implant and form a developing embryo (baby). If the egg is not fertilised, the lining of the womb is shed from the body in what are commonly known as a woman’s ‘periods’.
Girls start to have their periods (menstruate) around the age of 13, usually about 2 years after the breasts first start to develop, and will continue having periods until the menopause, which occurs, on average, at about the age of 51.
The length of the menstrual cycle can vary from a short cycle of only 21 days to a long cycle of 40 days. The length of the cycle is calculated by counting the first day of bleeding as day 1 and then counting until the very last day before the next bleed (period).
The length of the menstrual cycle varies widely in women, but on an average it extends to about 28 days. It is absent during pregnancy, may be suppressed during lactation and permanently stops at menopause.
Folicular phase = Repair phase
Ovulatory phase = Fertile phase = Ovulation phase
Lutheal phase = Premenstrual phase